Which urinary biomarkers are being investigated for the use in the detection and surveillance of bladder cancer?

Updated: Nov 01, 2018
  • Author: Gary David Steinberg, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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The field of urothelial carcinoma tumor markers is an area of significant interest as a means to potentially improve cancer detection, as well as the cost and anxiety associated with surveillance. Several potentially clinically relevant biomarkers are under investigation, including the following [38]  :

  • Bladder cancer–specific nuclear matrix protein (BCLA-1 and BCLA-4)
  • Lewis X antigen
  • Aurora kinase A
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen–related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM1)
  • Epigenetic markers
  • Microsatellite analysis microRNA markers [39]  
  • DD23
  • Quanticyte nuclear karyometry
  • Cytokeratins
  • Hyaluronic acid
  • Survivin [40]

For high-grade bladder cancer, the following potential urine biomarkers have been identified [41] :

  • ECM1 (extracellular matrix protein 1)
  • CRYAB (alpha B-crystallin)
  • CGNL1 (cingulin-like 1)
  • GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase 3)

Plasma cell-free DNA has a growing role as a molecular marker for cancer management, with tests for lung cancer treatment selection and colorectal cancer screening approved for clinical use. [42]  Urinary cell-free DNA is showing promise for bladder cancer diagnosis. [43, 44]

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