Which urinary biomarkers are being investigated for the use in the detection and surveillance of bladder cancer?

Updated: Nov 01, 2018
  • Author: Gary David Steinberg, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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The field of urothelial carcinoma tumor markers is an area of significant interest as a means to potentially improve cancer detection, as well as the cost and anxiety associated with surveillance. Several potentially clinically relevant biomarkers are under investigation, including the following [36] :

  • Bladder cancer–specific nuclear matrix protein (BCLA-1 and BCLA-4)
  • Lewis X antigen
  • Aurora kinase A
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen–related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM1)
  • Epigenetic markers
  • Microsatellite analysis microRNA markers [37]  
  • DD23
  • Quanticyte nuclear karyometry
  • Cytokeratins
  • Hyaluronic acid
  • Survivin

However, further studies are required to determine their application in the diagnosis and monitoring of urothelial carcinoma.

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