What is the prevalence of HIV-associated meningitis?

Updated: Aug 24, 2017
  • Author: Gulshan Uppal, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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Answer

Answer

In the United States, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common HIV-associated opportunistic infection of the central nervous system, affecting 5-7% of patients with AIDS. The second most common type of meningitis is aseptic meningitis, which may be caused by HIV-1 itself. 

Although the incidence of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis has declined in patients who have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), cryptococcal disease remains a leading cause of mortality in the developing world where access to ART is limited. A low CD4 cell count is the main predictor of risk of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis; the vast majority of cases occur among AIDS patients with a CD4 count < 100 cells/microL. [1]


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