What is verrucous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)?

Updated: Jan 23, 2019
  • Author: Muhammad T Idrees, MD; Chief Editor: Liang Cheng, MD  more...
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Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder, accounting for less than 5% of the squamous cell carcinomas. [21, 22] Most cases are associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection. Few cases have been reported from nonendemic areas. The tumor has an indolent growth pattern and spreads by direct extension. It does not metastasize, although it may develop foci of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. [23]

Grossly the tumor is a warty, exophytic mass that projects into the bladder lumen.

Microscopically, it appears as a prominent papillary mass with acanthosis. The tumor grows in bulbous fronds of well-differentiated, acanthotic epithelium. There is minimal atypia and pushing margin without increased mitoses. It may focally resemble condyloma and has been reported to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV); however, no firm link to HPV infection has been established. [8, 24] Generally, the verrucous carcinoma is considered low risk for progression; however, this is difficult to establish in the bladder because of a relatively fewer number of cases.

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