Which gross findings are characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)?

Updated: Jan 23, 2019
  • Author: Muhammad T Idrees, MD; Chief Editor: Liang Cheng, MD  more...
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Cystoscopically, squamous cell carcinoma appears nodular and has a plaquelike, irregular surface with involvement of multiple bladder sites. The lateral wall and trigone are more commonly involved. [3, 14, 15] Grossly, the tumor seems nodular with deep invasion into the muscularis propria and often involves the extravesical organs. Most of the tumors are large, exophytic, and necrotic and bulge into the bladder cavity. [16, 17] Flat tumors with irregular borders are less common. [18] Surface necrosis and keratin debris are usually present, which give it a flaky, whitish appearance.

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