What are the screening recommendations for the noncoronary atherosclerosis?

Updated: Dec 23, 2019
  • Author: F Brian Boudi, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Yasmine S Ali, MD, FACC, FACP, MSCI  more...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors associated with lifestyle include smoking, alcohol intake, diet, and exercise. Screening guidelines for modifiable lifestyle CVD risks in adults have been issued by the following organizations:

  • US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
  • American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC)
  • European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS)

A comparison of the recommendations for diet, physical activity, and tobacco use screening and interventions are listed in Table 1, below.

Table. Screening and Intervention Recommendations for Diet, Physical Activity, and Tobacco Use (Open Table in a new window)

Adult Guidelines


Risk Factor

Screening Populations

Recommended Interventions

US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) [12]


Diet and physical activity

Overweight or obese adults with additional cardiovascular risk

Intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity



Diet and physical activity

Adult without obesity who do not have known CVD risk factors

Primary care professionals should individualize the decision to offer or refer adults without obesity who do not have hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal blood glucose levels, or diabetes to behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity.

American Heart Association [14]


Diet and physical activity

All adults

Clinicians should provide individual or group-based interventions to promote and maintain healthy diet and physical activity that include a combination of two or more of the following strategies:

  • Setting specific, proximal goals
  • Providing feedback on progress
  • Providing strategies for self-monitoring
  • Establishing a plan for frequency and duration of follow-up
  • Using motivational interviews
  • Building self-efficacy

European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) [15]


Diet, physical activity, and tobacco use

All adults

Risk estimation for CVD using the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE)


All smokers offered assistance to quit


All patients encouraged to adopt healthy diet and increase physical activity


Multimodal behavioral interventions, integrating health education, physical exercise, and psychological therapy for psychosocial risk factors and coping with illness, should be prescribed for all patients with CVD



Tobacco Use

All adults

Ask all adults, including pregnant women, about tobacco use; advise those who use tobacco to stop using it, and provide behavioral interventions and US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.

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