Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Anthracycline are used in the treatment of Breast Cancer?

Updated: Dec 27, 2019
  • Author: Pavani Chalasani, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: John V Kiluk, MD, FACS  more...
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Answer

Antineoplastics, Anthracycline

Anthracyclines work in multiple ways, including intercalation between DNA base pairs and inhibition of type II topoisomerase function, resulting in inhibition of cell replication and transcription. They also work by inhibition of DNA helicase, resulting in DNA cleavage.

Doxorubicin

Doxorubicin is a cytotoxic anthracycline that inhibits topoisomerase II and produces free radicals, which may cause destruction of DNA. It blocks DNA and RNA synthesis by inserting between adjacent base pairs and binding to the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, which causes DNA polymerase inhibition. It binds to nucleic acids, presumably by specific intercalation of the anthracycline nucleus with the DNA double helix.

This agent is also a powerful iron chelator. The iron-doxorubicin complex induces production of free radicals that can destroy DNA and cancer cells. Maximum toxicity occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle.

Epirubicin (Ellence)

Epirubicin is indicated as a part of adjuvant therapy in patients with evidence of axillary-node tumor involvement after resection of primary breast cancer. [142] It can be used as a single agent, but such use is much less common in the setting of recurrent or metastatic disease. Epirubicin is a cell cycle phase inhibitor–nonspecific anthracycline derivative of doxorubicin with maximum cytotoxic effects on the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle.


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