How is distant breast cancer metastasis staged?

Updated: Dec 27, 2019
  • Author: Pavani Chalasani, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: John V Kiluk, MD, FACS  more...
  • Print
Answer

Table. (Open Table in a new window)

Distant metastasis staging (M)

M0

No clinical or radiographic evidence of distant metastasis

cM0(i+)

No clinical or radiographic evidence of distant metastases in the presence of tumor cells or deposits no larger than 0.2 mm detected microscopically or by molecular techniques in circulating blood, bone marrow, or other nonregional nodal tissue in a patient without symptoms or signs of metastase

cM1

Distant metastases detected by clinical and radiographic means 

pM1

Any histologically proven metastases in distant organs; or if in non-regional nodes, metastases > 0.2 mm