What are the prognostic and predictive factors for breast cancer?

Updated: Feb 04, 2021
  • Author: Pavani Chalasani, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: John V Kiluk, MD, FACS  more...
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Numerous prognostic and predictive factors for breast cancer have been identified by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) to guide the clinical management of women with breast cancer. Breast cancer prognostic factors include the following:

  • Axillary lymph node status
  • Tumor size
  • Lymphatic/vascular invasion
  • Patient age
  • Histologic grade
  • Histologic subtypes (eg, tubular, mucinous [colloid], or papillary)
  • Response to neoadjuvant therapy
  • Estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status
  • HER2 gene amplification or overexpression

Cancerous involvement of the lymph nodes in the axilla is an indication of the likelihood that the breast cancer has spread to other organs. Survival and recurrence are independent of level of involvement but are directly related to the number of involved nodes.

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