Which factors are associated with increased risk (relative risk 1.1-2.0) for breast cancer?

Updated: Dec 16, 2019
  • Author: Jessica Katz, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Marie Catherine Lee, MD, FACS  more...
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Answer

Answer

Factors associated with RR 1.1-2.0 for breast cancer are as follows [6, 7, 8] :

  • Alcohol consumption
  • Age 30-35 at first full-term pregnancy
  • Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero
  • Early menarche (age < 12 years)
  • Height (> 5 feet 3 inches) [6]
  • High socioeconomic class
  • Ashkenazi Jewish heritage
  • Personal history of breast cancer (age of onset > 40)
  • Dense breasts (25-50%, compared with 11-25% mammographically)
  • Benign breast conditions: Non-atypical ductal hyperplasia, fibroadenoma, sclerosing adenosis, microglandular adenosis, papillomatosis, radial scar
  • Never breastfed a child
  • Nulliparity (no full-term pregnancies)
  • Late menopause (age > 55)
  • Type II diabetes mellitus
  • Obesity (post-menopausal)
  • Personal history of uterine, ovarian, or colon cancer
  • Recent and long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) containing estrogen and progestin
  • Recent oral contraceptive use [9]
  • Occupation: night shift
  • Tobacco abuse
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Inferior cardiovascular health
  • High bone mineral density [10]

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