How is thymoma staged?

Updated: Dec 03, 2018
  • Author: Kendrix J Evans, MD, MS; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, MSc, DSc, AGAF  more...
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Answer

The Masaoka system is the most commonly accepted staging system for thymomas (see Table 3 below).

Table 3. Masaoka Staging System of Thymomas and Corresponding Therapy (Open Table in a new window)

Stage

Definition

Treatment

I

Encapsulated tumor with no gross or microscopic invasion

Complete surgical excision

II

Macroscopic invasion into the mediastinal fat or pleura or microscopic invasion into the capsule

Complete surgical excision and postoperative radiotherapy to decrease the incidence of local recurrence

III

Invasion of the pericardium, great vessels, or lung

Complete surgical excision and postoperative radiotherapy to decrease the incidence of local recurrence

IVA

Pleural or pericardial metastatic spread

Surgical debulking, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy

IVB

Pleural or pericardial metastatic spread

Surgical debulking, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy

See Thymoma Staging for more information.


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