What are the WHO recommended contraindications for PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, reaspiration) for hydatid cysts of the liver?

Updated: Mar 27, 2020
  • Author: Robert E Glasgow, MD; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, MSc, DSc, AGAF  more...
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The WHO recommendations for contraindications for PAIR are as follows [18] :

  • Noncooperative patients
  • Inaccessible or risky location of the liver cyst
  • Cyst in spine, brain, and/or heart
  • Inactive or calcified lesion
  • Cyst communicating with the biliary tree

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