What are the WHO recommended indications for PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, reaspiration) for hydatid cysts of the liver?

Updated: Mar 27, 2020
  • Author: Robert E Glasgow, MD; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, MSc, DSc, AGAF  more...
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The WHO recommendations for indications for PAIR are as follows [18] :

  • Nonechoic lesion greater than or equal to 5 cm in diameter
  • Cysts with daughter cysts and/or with membrane detachment
  • Multiple cysts if accessible to puncture
  • Infected cysts
  • Patients who refuse surgery
  • Patients who relapse after surgery
  • Patients in whom surgery is contraindicated
  • Patients who fail to respond to chemotherapy alone
  • Children older than 3 years
  • Pregnant women

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