When is surgery indicated for treatment of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (LGIB)?

Updated: Jul 26, 2019
  • Author: Burt Cagir, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Indications for surgery include the following:

  • Active persistent bleeding with hemodynamic instability that is refractory to aggressive resuscitation

  • Persistent, recurrent bleeding

  • Transfusion of more than 4 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in a 24-hour period, with active or recurrent bleeding

  • Transfusion of more than 6 units of PRBCs during the same hospitalization

See Treatment and Medication for more detail.

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