Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB)?

Updated: Sep 01, 2021
  • Author: Bennie Ray Upchurch, III, MD, FACP, AGAF, FACG, FASGE; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Amoxicillin (Amoxil, Moxatag (DSC), Trimox)

Amoxicillin inhibits the final stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to specific PBPs on the inner part of the bacterial wall, leading to bacterial lysis.

Metronidazole (Flagyl, Flagyl ER, Flagyl IV RTU)

Metronidazole is reduced to its active form intracellularly only by anaerobic organisms, then disrupts the helical structure of DNA and inhibits bacterial nucleic acid synthesis.

Levofloxacin (Levaquin, Levofloxacin Systemic)

Levofloxacin is an L-stereoisomer of its parent compound ofloxacin; the D-isomer form is inactive

This agent inhibits DNA gyrase activity, which in turn promotes breakage of DNA strands.

Levofloxacin is a good monotherapy, with extended coverage against Pseudomonas spp, as well as excellent activity against pneumococcus.


Clarithromycin inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking the dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes, causing the arrest of RNA-dependent protein synthesis.

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cipro XR, ProQuin XR)

Ciprofloxacin inhibits the relaxation of DNA; inhibits DNA gyrase in susceptible organisms; and promotes breakage of double-stranded DNA.

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