What is the risk of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in peptic ulcer disease?

Updated: Sep 01, 2021
  • Author: Bennie Ray Upchurch, III, MD, FACP, AGAF, FACG, FASGE; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Forrest et al were the first to classify the stigmata of hemorrhage from peptic ulcers. Based on these classifications, the risk of recurrent bleeding can be predicted. The ulcers at highest risk for rebleeding are those that involve active arterial bleeding or those with a visible, protuberant, nonbleeding vessel at the base of the ulcer. The study not only correlated the incidence of rebleeding with the stigmata of recent bleeding and the endoscopic appearance of an ulcer, but also determined prognostic information regarding the need for surgery. Mortality was also correlated with these factors. [16]

In patients with H pylori infection, the rate of recurrent bleeding is increased. This is why documenting the presence of H pylori and aggressively treating the infection are important.

Patients who are not infected with H pylori may require a subsequent acid-lowering surgical procedure or long-term medical therapy for recurrent ulcer disease and bleeding.

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