Which interventions are used in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB)?

Updated: Sep 01, 2021
  • Author: Bennie Ray Upchurch, III, MD, FACP, AGAF, FACG, FASGE; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Treatment may include the following:

  • Secure the airway
  • Insert bilateral, 16-gauge (minimum), upper extremity, peripheral intravenous lines
  • Replace each milliliter of blood loss with 3 mL of crystalloid fluid
  • In patients with severe coexisting medical illnesses, pulmonary artery catheter insertion for monitoring hemodynamic cardiac performance
  • Foley catheter placement for continuous evaluation of urinary output as a guide to renal perfusion
  • Endoscopic hemostatic therapy for bleeding ulcers and varices
  • Surgical repair of perforated viscus
  • For high-risk peptic ulcer patients, high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors
  • Mesenteric angiography with embolization therapy

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