What is the importance of embryology in the pathogenesis of tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)?

Updated: Nov 07, 2018
  • Author: Sat Sharma, MD, FRCPC; Chief Editor: Vinay Kumar Kapoor, MBBS, MS, FRCS, FAMS  more...
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Answer

Knowledge of embryology is essential to understand the pathogenesis of congenital TEFs.

The esophagus and trachea both develop from the primitive foregut. In a 4- to 6-week-old embryo, the caudal part of the foregut forms a ventral diverticulum that evolves into the trachea. The longitudinal tracheoesophageal fold fuses to form a septum that divides the foregut into a ventral laryngotracheal tube and a dorsal esophagus. The posterior deviation of the tracheoesophageal septum causes incomplete separation of the esophagus from the laryngotracheal tube and results in a TEF.

Incomplete formation of the esophagus is known as esophageal atresia, which may be associated with TEFs. Many anatomic variations of esophageal atresia with or without a TEF may occur. The most common anomaly consists of a blind esophageal pouch and a distal TEF. Pure esophageal atresia without a TEF is the second most common form. The third most common anomaly is the H-type fistula, which consists of a TEF without esophageal atresia.


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