What is the pathophysiology of tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)?

Updated: Nov 07, 2018
  • Author: Sat Sharma, MD, FRCPC; Chief Editor: Vinay Kumar Kapoor, MBBS, MS, FRCS, FAMS  more...
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Approximately 17-70% of children with tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs) have associated developmental anomalies. These anomalies include Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and cardiovascular defects. The following congenital anomalies have been reported with variable frequency:

  • Cardiac anomalies include ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, atrial septal defect, and right-sided aortic arch.

  • Genitourinary anomalies include renal agenesis or dysphagia, horseshoe kidney, polycystic kidney, ureteral and urethral malformations, and hypospadias.

  • Gastrointestinal anomalies include imperforate anus, duodenal atresia, malrotation, intestinal malformation, Meckel diverticulum, and annular pancreas.

  • Musculoskeletal anomalies include hemivertebrae, radial dysphagia or amelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, rib malformation, scoliosis, and lower limb defect.

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