What is the difference between the 2 toxins produced by Clostridium difficile (C diff)?

Updated: Jul 25, 2019
  • Author: Faten N Aberra, MD, MSCE; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Pathogenic strains of C difficile produce 2 distinct toxins. Toxin A is an enterotoxin, and toxin B is a cytotoxin; both are high–molecular weight proteins capable of binding to specific receptors on the intestinal mucosal cells. Receptor-bound toxins gain intracellular entry by catalyzing a specific alteration of Rho proteins—small glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP)–binding proteins that assist in actin polymerization, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell movement. Both toxin A and toxin B appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of C difficile colitis in humans.

More recently, rat studies suggest that C difficile toxin B induces senescence in enteric glial cells (ECGs); investigators hypothesize that EGCs that survive toxin B and acquire senescence potentially cause the development of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease via persistent inflammation, transfer of senescence status, and stimulation of preneoplastic cells. [12]


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