How is hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) diagnosed in cirrhosis?

Updated: Jul 30, 2018
  • Author: David C Wolf, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF, FAASLD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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HPS is detected most readily by echocardiographic visualization of late-appearing bubbles in the left atrium following the injection of agitated saline. Patients can receive a diagnosis of HPS when their PaO2 is less than 70 mm Hg. Some cases of HPS may be corrected by liver transplantation. In fact, a patient's course to liver transplantation may be expedited when his or her PaO2 is less than 60 mm Hg.

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