What are renal symptoms of Wilson disease?

Updated: Feb 14, 2019
  • Author: Richard K Gilroy, MBBS, FRACP; Chief Editor: Praveen K Roy, MD, AGAF  more...
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The Wilson disease gene is expressed in kidney tissue; therefore, any renal manifestations may be primary or secondary to release of copper from the liver.

Clinically, patients may resemble those with Fanconi syndrome, demonstrating defective renal acidification and excess renal losses of amino acids, glucose, fructose, galactose, pentose, uric acid, phosphate, and calcium. The frequency of renal manifestations is variable.

Urolithiasis, found in up to 16% of patients with Wilson disease, may be the result of hypercalciuria or poor acidification.

Hematuria and nephrocalcinosis are reported, and proteinuria and peptiduria can occur before treatment as part of the disease process and after therapy as adverse effects of D-penicillamine. [15]

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