What are the long-term risks of levodopa for the management of Parkinson disease (PD)?

Updated: Aug 29, 2019
  • Author: Robert A Hauser, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Levodopa, coupled with a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor such as carbidopa, remains the standard of symptomatic treatment for Parkinson disease. It provides the greatest antiparkinsonian benefit with the fewest adverse effects in the short term. However, long-term use of levodopa is associated with the development of fluctuations and dyskinesias. Once fluctuations and dyskinesias become problematic, they are difficult to resolve. These adverse effects are the reason to consider delaying the initiation of levodopa if other alternatives are able to control symptoms.

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