Which secondary causes of parkinsonism (Parkinson-plus syndromes) should be considered in the differential diagnoses of Parkinson disease (PD)?

Updated: Aug 29, 2019
  • Author: Robert A Hauser, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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In patients with parkinsonism, careful attention to the history is necessary to exclude secondary causes such as medications, toxins, or trauma. Medications that block striatal dopamine receptors, such as metoclopramide and neuroleptics, can cause drug-induced parkinsonism. Certain toxins such as MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and manganese (at high levels of exposure) can also cause parkinsonism.

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