What are the cardinal signs of Parkinson disease (PD)?

Updated: Jan 24, 2019
  • Author: Robert A Hauser, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Answer

There are 4 cardinal signs of Parkinson disease, with 2 of the first 3 listed below required to make the clinical diagnosis. The fourth cardinal sign, postural instability (balance difficulty), emerges late in the disease, usually after 8 years or more.

  • Resting tremor

  • Rigidity

  • Bradykinesia

  • Postural instability


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