Does high caffeine intake or smoking increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD)?

Updated: Aug 29, 2019
  • Author: Robert A Hauser, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, as well as a meta-analysis of prospective studies, found that higher caffeine intake was associated with lower risk of Parkinson disease in both men and women. A similar association was found for smoking and Parkinson disease risk. [5] The biological mechanisms underlying the inverse relationship between caffeine or smoking and Parkinson disease risk are not well elucidated.

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