What is the pathophysiology of type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP)?

Updated: Jun 27, 2019
  • Author: Henry J Rohrs, III, MD; Chief Editor: Stuart Berger, MD  more...
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Type III HLP (also known as remnant removal disease, remnant lipoprotein disease, or dysbetalipoproteinemia) is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 5000 persons in the general population but rarely manifests in children. Type III HLP is caused by increases in IDL and remnant lipoproteins and is manifested by approximately equal increases in total cholesterol and TGs.

Palmar xanthomas (xanthoma striata palmaris) may occur in type III HLP and are not observed in other disorders. Genetic and environmental factors both influence the development of type III HLP. The entity should be considered when tuberous xanthomas, palmar xanthomas, or both are noted, and the patient may be obese or have underling diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, and renal or hepatic disease. Type III HLP can be inherited as a recessive trait or, less commonly, as a dominant trait.

Most adults with type III HLP are homozygous for apoprotein E-2 (one of the 3 isoforms of apoprotein E). Adults with type III HLP are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular disease and, particularly, peripheral vascular disease.

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