How is the pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC) system dynamically tuned?

Updated: Dec 22, 2017
  • Author: Bojan Paunovic, MD; Chief Editor: Karlheinz Peter, MD, PhD  more...
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Central pressures are dynamic waveforms (ie, they vary from systole to diastole) and thus have a periodic frequency. To monitor these pressures accurately, the system requires an appropriate frequency response. A poorly responsive system produces inaccurate pressure readings, and differentiating waveforms (eg, PA from pulmonary capillary wedge pressure [PCWP]) can become difficult. When signal energy is lost, the pressure waveform is dampened. Common causes of this are air bubbles (which are compressible), long or compliant tubing, vessel wall impingement, intracatheter debris, transducer malfunction, and loose connections in the tubing. A qualitative test of the frequency response is performed by flicking the catheter and observing a brisk high-frequency response in the waveform.

After insertion, the system can be checked by using the rapid flush test. When flushed, an appropriately responsive system shows an initial horizontal straight line with a high-pressure reading. Once the flushing is terminated, the pressure drops immediately, which is represented by a vertical line that plunges below the baseline. A brief and well-defined oscillation occurs, followed by return of the PA waveform. A dampened system will not overshoot or oscillate, and causes a delay in returning to the PA waveform.

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