What are alternatives to pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC)?

Updated: Dec 22, 2017
  • Author: Bojan Paunovic, MD; Chief Editor: Karlheinz Peter, MD, PhD  more...
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When pulmonary artery catheterization is not available in patients with a hyperdynamic condition (eg, cirrhotic patients with reduced SVR and increased cardiac output), minimally invasive indicators such as diastolic reflected waveform characteristics may potentially be used to predict high cardiac index and low SVR. [4]  

Transthoracic echocardiography appears to be feasible and accurate for evaluating the hemodynamic profile in patients with decompensated heart failure. [5] As with pulmonary artery catheterization, this imaging modality is also able to measure central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, stroke volume and cardiac output, and SVR. Transesophageal echocardiography potentially could have similar utlity. [5]

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