What is the pathophysiology of abdominal sepsis?

Updated: Jul 23, 2019
  • Author: Brian J Daley, MD, MBA, FACS, FCCP, CNSC; Chief Editor: Praveen K Roy, MD, AGAF  more...
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Answer

Intra-abdominal sepsis from a perforated viscus (ie, secondary peritonitis or suppurative peritonitis) results from direct spillage of luminal contents into the peritoneum (eg, perforated peptic ulcer, diverticulitis, appendicitis, iatrogenic perforation). With the spillage of the contents, gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria, including common gut flora, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, enter the peritoneal cavity. Endotoxins produced by gram-negative bacteria lead to the release of cytokines that induce cellular and humoral cascades, resulting in cellular damage, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).


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