What are effective alternative options for open surgery in the treatment of hydatid disease (echinococcosis)?

Updated: May 07, 2019
  • Author: Imad S Dandan, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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A retrospective study showed laparoscopic therapy and puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) intervention to be safe and effective alternative options to open surgery in patients with a suitable indication such as cyst type and location. [13]

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