How is the mortality and morbidity of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) characterized?

Updated: Oct 16, 2017
  • Author: Deepika Devuni, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Physicians need to be aware that 2 different forms of HRS are described. [17]  Although their pathophysiology is similar, their manifestations and outcomes are different.

Type 1 HRS is characterized by rapid and progressive renal impairment and is most commonly precipitated by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Type 1 HRS occurs in approximately 25% of patients with SBP, despite rapid resolution of the infection with antibiotics. Without treatment, the median survival of patients with type 1 HRS is less than 2 weeks, and virtually all patients die within 10 weeks after the onset of renal failure.

Type 2 HRS is characterized by a moderate and stable reduction in the GFR and commonly occurs in patients with relatively preserved hepatic function. These patients are often diuretic-resistant with a median survival of 3-6 months. Although this is markedly longer than type 1 HRS, it is still shorter compared to patients with cirrhosis and ascites who do not have renal failure.

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