Which histologic findings are characteristic of hepatitis C (hep C) infection?

Updated: Oct 07, 2019
  • Author: Vinod K Dhawan, MD, FACP, FRCPC, FIDSA; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Lymphocytic infiltration, moderate degrees of inflammation and necrosis, and portal or bridging fibrosis are noted in hepatitis C. Regenerative nodules are seen in patients with cirrhosis. Some patients also may have findings indicative of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Most pathologists provide separate measurements of disease activity (grade) and fibrosis (stage). Many scoring systems are used, including the Ishak (6-point scale) and the Knodell histologic activity index (18-point score); although both scoring systems are useful for assessing improvements in histologic findings in studies, they are impractical for clinical use because of interobserver disagreement.

The METAVIR score was developed by the French METAVIR Cooperative Study Group and reported by Bedossa and Poynard in 1996 [69] ; it is frequently used in European trials. This score consists of a 3-point activity scale and 4-point fibrosis score, with good agreement among pathologists. In the United States, many pathologists use a scale described by Batts and Ludwig (Batts-Ludwig score) in 1995, [70] which consists of an activity grade (0-4) and a fibrosis stage (0-4).

HCC may occur rapidly following treatment with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in HCV-related cirrhosis; thus, patients with cirrhosis should be closely monitored after DAA therapy. [71] Most of the neoplastic HCC nodules appear to have aggressive imaging features of microvascular invasion in this setting. [71]

Noninvasive methods of assessing hepatic fibrosis are in development. Current serum assays are directed at measuring breakdown products of extracellular matrix constituents (eg, glycoproteins, propeptides) and their regulatory enzymes (eg, lysyl oxidase, lysyl hydroxylase, propyl hydroxylase).


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