What is the WHO recommendation for monitoring for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and in which patients with hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B) infection?

Updated: Aug 01, 2018
  • Author: Nikolaos T Pyrsopoulos, MD, PhD, MBA, FACP, AGAF; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Routinely obtain abdominal ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels every 6 months for individuals who:

  • Are cirrhotic, regardless of their age or the presence of other risk factors (Strong recommendation)
  • Have a family history of HCC (Strong recommendation)
  • Are older than 40 years (younger age may be indicated based on the regional HCC incidence), do not have clinical evidence of cirrhosis (or based on APRI score ≤2), and have an HBV DNA level above 2,000 IU/mL (where HBV DNA testing is available) (Conditional recommendation)

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