What are diagnostic test findings of the HBeAg-positive subtype of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B) disease?

Updated: Aug 01, 2018
  • Author: Nikolaos T Pyrsopoulos, MD, PhD, MBA, FACP, AGAF; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Patients have mild to moderate elevation of the aminotransferases (≤5 times the ULN). The ALT levels are usually higher than the AST levels. Extremely high levels of ALT can be observed during exacerbation or reactivation of the disease, and they can be accompanied by impaired synthetic function of the liver (ie, decreased albumin levels, increased bilirubin levels, and prolonged prothrombin time [PT]).

HBV DNA levels are high during this phase. HBsAg and anti-HBc of IgG or IgM type (in case of reactivation) are identified in the serum.

If the AST levels are higher than the ALT levels, the diagnosis of cirrhosis must be considered. Hyperglobulinemia is another finding, predominantly with an elevation of the IgG globulins. Tissue-nonspecific antibodies, such as anti–smooth muscle antibodies (ASMAs) (20-25%) or antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) (10-20%), can be identified. Tissue-specific antibodies, such as antibodies against the thyroid gland (10-20%), can also be found. Mildly elevated levels of rheumatoid factor (RF) are usually present, indicating the presence of cryoglobulins on further assessment.


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