What is a poor prognostic factor for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatitis B (HBV) (Hep B) infection?

Updated: Jun 08, 2021
  • Author: Nikolaos T Pyrsopoulos, MD, PhD, MBA, FACP, AGAF; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Expression of inflammatory molecules in HBV-related HCC tissues is associated with poor prognosis. [36] Imbalance between intratumoral CD8* T cells and regulatory T cells or type 1 helper T cells (Th1), and type 2 helper T-cell (Th2) cytokines in peritumoral tissues can predict the prognosis of HBV-related HCC. These molecules are also important for developing active prevention and surveillance of HBV-infected patients. [36]

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