Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of acute liver failure (ALF)?

Updated: Jun 13, 2019
  • Author: Gagan K Sood, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

A wide variety of conditions can cause acute liver failure or produce mental status changes and coagulopathy resembling acute liver failure. Problems to consider include the following:

  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy

  • Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning

  • Bacillus cereus toxin

  • Fructose intolerance

  • Galactosemia

  • HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome of pregnancy

  • Hemorrhagic viruses (Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus)

  • Idiopathic drug reaction (hypersensitivity)

  • Neonatal iron storage disease

  • Tyrosinemia

  • Acetaminophen poisoning

For a discussion of acute liver failure and other diagnostic considerations in liver transplant recipients, see the Medscape article Liver Transplants.


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