What treatments are available for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection?

Updated: Jul 21, 2021
  • Author: Luigi Santacroce, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Several triple therapy regimens for the treatment of H pylori infection in patients with gastric and duodenal peptic ulcer disease are used.

In the setting of any history of treatment with macrolides or fluoroquinolones, avoid clarithromycin- or levofloxacin-based regimens, respectively, because of the higher risk of resistance. Consider amoxicillin, tetracycline, and rifabutin as subsequent therapies in refractory H pylori infection as resistance to these antibiotics is rare.

If first-line therapy with bismuth quadruple therapy is ineffective, use shared decision making to select second-line options between (a) levofloxacin- or rifabutin-based triple-therapy regimens with a high-dose dual proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and amoxicillin, and (b) an alternative bismuth-containing quadruple therapy.

When using metronidazole-containing regimens, consider adequate dosing of metronidazole (1.5–2 g daily in divided doses) with concomitant bismuth therapy to improve success of eradication therapy.

All the eradication treatments have a high incidence of certain adverse effects (eg, nausea, metallic taste). If skin rash, vomiting, or diarrhea occurs, discontinue treatment.


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