What are the extraintestinal signs and symptoms of giardiasis?

Updated: Oct 01, 2018
  • Author: Hisham Nazer, MBBCh, FRCP, DTM&H; Chief Editor: Burt Cagir, MD, FACS  more...
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Extraintestinal manifestations are rare and include allergic manifestations such as urticaria, erythema multiforme, bronchospasm, reactive arthritis, and biliary tract disease. The etiology of such extraintestinal symptoms is likely a result of host immune system activation and cross-reactivity/molecular mimicry.

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