Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Bacterial Gastroenteritis?

Updated: Jul 17, 2018
  • Author: Jennifer Lynn Bonheur, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Antibiotics

Along with the immune system, antibiotics help to destroy offending organisms.

Cefixime (Suprax)

Cefixime is a potent, long-acting oral cephalosporin with increased gram-negative coverage. It arrests bacterial growth by binding to 1 or more penicillin-binding proteins.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

Ceftriaxone is a third-generation parenteral antibiotic with wide coverage, including of gram-negative bacilli. It arrests bacterial growth by binding to 1 or more penicillin-binding proteins.

Cefotaxime (Claforan)

Cefotaxime is a third-generation parenteral antibiotic with wide coverage, including of gram-negative bacilli. It arrests bacterial cell wall synthesis, which, in turn, inhibits bacterial growth.

Erythromycin (E.E.S., EryPed, Erythrocin, Ery-Tab)

Erythromycin is an old bacteriostatic macrolide with activity against most gram-positive organisms and atypical respiratory organisms. It is useful for Campylobacter and Vibrio enteritis. Nausea is a common adverse effect and may be tolerated poorly by some patients. Enteric-coated tablets are associated with less nausea.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Septra DS)

This is a folate synthesis blocker that has wide antibiotic coverage.

Vancomycin (Vancocin)

Vancomycin therapy is a powerful treatment for antibiotic-associated colitis. Vancomycin is indicated for patients who cannot receive or whose condition has not responded to penicillins and cephalosporins or who are infected with resistant staphylococci.

To avoid toxicity, the current recommendation is to assay trough levels after the third dose drawn 0.5 hour before the next dosing. Use creatinine clearance to adjust the dose in patients diagnosed with renal impairment.

Vancomycin is used in conjunction with gentamicin for prophylaxis in patients allergic to penicillin who are undergoing a gastrointestinal or genitourinary procedure.

Rifaximin (Xifaxan)

Rifaximin is a nonabsorbed (< 0.4%), broad-spectrum antibiotic specific for enteric pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract (ie, gram-positive, gram-negative, aerobic, anaerobic). Rifampin is a structural analogue. It binds to the beta subunit of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-dependent ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis. It is indicated for E coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative strains) associated with travelers' diarrhea.

Rifamycin (Aemcolo, Rifamycin SV MMX)

Oral nonabsorbable antibiotic which can be used for the treatment of bacterial infections of the colon. Belongs to the ansamycin antibacterial drug class and acts by inhibiting the beta-subunit of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, blocking 1 of the DNA transcription steps, which results in bacterial synthesis inhibition and consequently bacterial growth. It is indicated for traveler’s diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of E coli, not complicated by fever or blood in the stool.


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