What are the risk factors for bacterial gastroenteritis?

Updated: Jul 17, 2018
  • Author: Jennifer Lynn Bonheur, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Studies have suggested that the use of acid-suppressing medications (proton pump inhibitors [PPIs], although not H2 receptor antagonists [H2RAs]) may increase the risk of developing gastroenteritis by reducing the acidic environment that serves as an initial defense mechanism against gastrointestinal infections. This effect has also been noted to be dose dependent (ie, an increased dose of PPI therapy is associated with an increased risk of infection). PPI use has also been associated with a higher risk of gastroenteritis hospitalization. [49]

PPI therapy has also been suggested to be an independent risk factor for the development and recurrence of C difficilecolitis [9]  as well as increases the risk Campylobacter gastroenteritis. [10]


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