What is the etiology of acute gastritis?

Updated: Jul 12, 2020
  • Author: Sarah El-Nakeep, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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The causes of acute gastritis include the following:

  • Drugs: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen); cocaine; iron; colchicine (when at toxic levels, as in patients with failing renal or hepatic function); kayexalate; chemotherapeutic agents (eg, mitomycin C, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine, floxuridine, tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as midostaurin, [1] and cancer immunotherapeutic agents, such as pembrolizumab). [4]

  • Potent alcoholic beverages, such as whisky, vodka, and gin

  • Bacterial infections: H pylori (most frequent), H heilmanii (rare), streptococci (rare), staphylococci (rare), Proteus species (rare), Clostridium species (rare), E coli (rare), tuberculosis (rare), secondary syphilis (rare)

  • Viral infections (eg, cytomegalovirus)

  • Fungal infections: Candidiasis, histoplasmosis, phycomycosis

  • Parasitic infection (eg, anisakidosis)

  • Acute stress (shock)

  • Radiation

  • Allergy and food poisoning

  • Bile: The reflux of bile (an alkaline medium is important for the activation of digestive enzymes in the small intestine) from the small intestine to the stomach can induce gastritis.

  • Ischemia: This term is used to refer to damage induced by a decreased blood supply to the stomach. This rare etiology is due to the rich blood supply to the stomach.

  • Direct trauma

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