How is esophageal spasm diagnosed and managed?

Updated: Aug 07, 2019
  • Author: Ahmad Malas, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Currently, high-resolution manometry is the best diagnostic modality. Treatment includes calcium channel blockers, botulinum toxin, nitrates, tricyclic antidepressants, sildenafil, dilatation, myotomy, and esophagectomy. Research is ongoing to determine the underlying causes to improve diagnostic capabilities and therapeutic regimens in the future. [1]


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