Which medications in the drug class Antifungal Agents are used in the treatment of Esophagitis?

Updated: May 02, 2019
  • Author: Deepika Devuni, MBBS; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Answer

Antifungal Agents

Antifungal agents are topical or systemic agents used to treat fungal infections.

Clotrimazole

Clotrimazole is a nonabsorbable imidazole. It is a broad-spectrum synthetic antifungal agent that inhibits the growth of yeasts by altering cell membrane permeability.

Nystatin

Nystatin is a nonabsorbable polyene antifungal agent obtained from Streptomyces noursei. It binds to sterols in the cell membrane of susceptible fungi, with a resulting change in membrane permeability, allowing leakage of intracellular components. It is indicated for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Fluconazole (Diflucan)

Fluconazole is a synthetic triazole fungistatic agent. It is a highly selective inhibitor of fungal cytochrome P-450 sterol C-14 alpha demethylation.

Amphotericin B deoxycholate

Conventional amphotericin B binds to sterols in the cell membrane and alters permeability. It is used in patients with granulocytopenia. The oral route is infrequently used and has no advantage over oral clotrimazole or nystatin.

Anidulafungin (Eraxis)

Anidulafungin is an antifungal agent of the echinocandin class. It inhibits synthesis of 1,3-beta-D-glucan, an essential component of fungal cell walls. It is indicated to treat esophageal candidiasis, candidemia, and other forms of candidal infections (eg, intra-abdominal abscesses, peritonitis).

Itraconazole (Sporanox, Sporanox PulsePak)

Itraconazole is a synthetic triazole antifungal agent that slows fungal cell growth by inhibiting cytochrome P-450–dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a vital component of fungal cell membranes.

Flucytosine (Ancobon)

Although the exact mode of action is unknown, it is proposed that flucytosine acts directly on fungal organisms by competitive inhibition of purine and pyrimidine uptake and indirectly by intracellular metabolism, where it is converted to 5-fluorouracil after penetrating the fungal cells. It inhibits RNA and protein synthesis. It is active against Candida and Cryptococcus species and generally is used in combination with amphotericin B.


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