What are the types of refractory celiac disease (sprue)?

Updated: Nov 29, 2019
  • Author: Stephan U Goebel, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Refractory celiac disease is subdivided into two types: Type 1 is characterized by a normal intraepithelial lymphocyte phenotype, and type 2 is characterized with an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes, possibly due to an increase in epithelial interleukin 15 expression.

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