Which physical findings are characteristic of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)?

Updated: Nov 08, 2017
  • Author: Nikolaos T Pyrsopoulos, MD, PhD, MBA, FACP, AGAF; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Physical examination findings depend on the stage of the disease. In the early stages, examination findings are normal. As the disease advances, excoriations of the skin, xanthomas, xanthelasmas, or findings of cirrhosis may be present.

Other findings may include the following:

  • Hepatomegaly (25%)

  • Hyperpigmentation (25%)

  • Splenomegaly (15%)

  • Jaundice (10%)

  • Xanthelasma (10%) - In late stages of the disease

  • Sicca syndrome (50-75%) - Xerophthalmia (ie, dry eyes), xerostomia (ie, dry mouth)

  • Kayser-Fleischer rings (extremely rare)

  • Stigmata of advanced liver disease (ie, cirrhosis), such as spider nevi, palmar erythema, ascites, temporal and proximal muscle wasting, and peripheral edema

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