What are the grades of Centruroides scorpion envenomation?

Updated: Nov 09, 2018
  • Author: David Cheng, MD; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, MD, MS  more...
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Grades of Centruroides envenomation are as follows:

  • Grade I - Local pain and/or paresthesias at the site of envenomation

  • Grade II - Pain and/or paresthesias remote from the site of the sting, in addition to local findings

  • Grade III - Either cranial nerve/autonomic dysfunction or somatic skeletal neuromuscular dysfunction, as follows:

    • Cranial nerve dysfunction - Blurred vision, roving eye movements, hypersalivation, tongue fasciculations, dysphagia, dysphonia, problems with upper airway

    • Somatic skeletal neuromuscular dysfunction - Restlessness, severe involuntary shaking or jerking of the extremities that may be mistaken for a seizure

  • Grade IV - Combined cranial nerve/autonomic dysfunction and somatic nerve dysfunction

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