What are the respiratory signs of scorpion envenomation?

Updated: Nov 09, 2018
  • Author: David Cheng, MD; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, MD, MS  more...
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Answer

Respiratory signs are as follows:

  • Tachypnea may be present.

  • Pulmonary edema with hemoptysis and a normal-sized heart is observed in 7-32% of respiratory cases. This is secondary to a direct toxin-induced increased pulmonary vessel permeability effect and is also secondary to catecholamine-induced effects of hypoxia and intracellular calcium accumulation, which leads to a decrease in left ventricular compliance with resultant ventricular dilation and diastolic dysfunction. [22]

  • Respiratory failure may occur secondary to diaphragm paralysis, alveolar hypoventilation, and bronchorrhea.


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