Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hypertensive encephalopathy?

Updated: Dec 10, 2018
  • Author: Irawan Susanto, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
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Most patients with hypertensive encephalopathy have a history of hypertension. In patients who do not have a prior history of hypertension, place emphasis on the past medical history, the medication list, and medication compliance. Actively seek drug-induced causes, for example, sympathomimetic agents and illicit drugs such as cocaine. [5]

Patients usually have vague neurologic symptoms and may present with symptoms of headache, confusion, visual disturbances, seizures, nausea, and vomiting. Headaches are usually anterior and constant in nature. The onset of symptoms usually occurs over 24-48 hours, with neurologic progression over 24-48 hours.

Patients also may present with symptoms resulting from other end-organ damage. [6] Examples of these symptoms include the following:

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