What causes acquired atrioventricular (AV) block?

Updated: Jul 05, 2018
  • Author: Akanksha Agrawal, MBBS; Chief Editor: Jeffrey N Rottman, MD  more...
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Answer

Common causes of acquired AV block are as follows:

  • Drugs (see below)

  • Degenerative diseases: Lenègre disease (sclerodegenerative process involving only the conduction system) and Lev disease (calcification of the conduction system and valves), noncompaction cardiomyopathy, nail-patella syndrome, mitochondrial myopathy [6]

  • Infectious causes: Lyme borreliosis (particularly in endemic areas), Trypanosoma cruzi infection, [7] rheumatic fever, myocarditis, Chagas disease, Aspergillus myocarditis, varicella-zoster virus infection, [8] valve ring abscess

  • Rheumatic diseases: Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter syndrome, relapsing polychondritis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma

  • Infiltrative processes: Amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, tumors, Hodgkin disease, multiple myeloma

  • Neuromuscular disorders: Becker muscular dystrophy, myotonic muscular dystrophy

  • Ischemic or infarctive causes: AV node (AVN) block associated with inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI), His-Purkinje block associated with anterior wall MI (see below)

  • Metabolic causes: Hypoxia, hyperkalemia, hypothyroidism

  • Toxins: “Mad” honey (grayanotoxin), cardiac glycosides (eg, oleandrin), and others

  • Phase IV block (also known as bradycardia-related block)

  • Iatrogenic causes (see below)


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