How is squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder graded?

Updated: Jun 11, 2019
  • Author: Muhammad T Idrees, MD; Chief Editor: Liang Cheng, MD  more...
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Answer

Answer

The tumor is generally graded as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated, depending upon the extent of keratinization and nuclear pleomorphism. [2, 13, 68, 69] However, the grading system is not universally reproducible, as some authors believe that there is no direct correlation between the aggressiveness and the tumor grade. [13] Others believe that histologic grade influences the tumor stage and clinical outcome. [2, 68] Nuclear tetraploidy and aneuploidy correlate with the grade and stage of squamous cell carcinoma and adversely affects survival. [69, 70]


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